The budget for border control policies has increased considerably over time: between 1996 and 2007, available funds amounted to €203 billion; from 2008 to 2016 these had grown to €270 billion (Source: Eurobserver).

The idea of integrated surveillance at European level was developed and increasingly consolidated over ten years before the European Agenda for Migration, when the European Frontex Agency (2005) was created. Frontex had the initial task of coordinating operational cooperation between the Member States in the field of external border management (De Genoa, Mezzadra, Pickles, 2015), but over time acquired an increasing focus on surveillance in collaboration with the European Border Surveillance System (Eurosur). Since 2013, Eurosur has been officially operational as an instrument for strengthening Frontex, enabling real-time information exchange between States that includes data collection, risk analysis, and identification of the location of migrant groups.


De Genova, N., Mezzadra, S., & Pickles, J. (2015). New keywords: Migration and borders. Cultural studies, 29(1), pp. 55-87.