Fieldwork in the Netherlands was conducted between September 2019 and February 2020. In the city of Amsterdam, I examined two ‘extreme cases’, both of which relate to the Dutch reception system and its structure. For the first case, I carried out an ethnographic research at SET, a building for refugees and students in IJburg, a neighbourhood in the east of Amsterdam. There, I participated in weekly meetings and interviewed the project coordinator. For the second case, I spent part of the fieldwork in several informal settlements set up by migrants with no status in Bijlmermeer, a district in the southeast of the city. During the five-month fieldwork, I also closely followed developments in the so-called LVV-Pilot [Ontwikkeling Landelijke Vreemdelingen Voorzieningen; route: “Development of national structures for foreigners”]. This new Dutch policy was launched at the national level in 5 cities (Amsterdam – Utrecht – Rotterdam – Groningen – Eindhoven); it addresses the management of centres for irregular people settled in the Netherlands. Beyond offering basic services like food and accommodation, these centres also serve as guides to identify a “durable solution” for overcoming the irregular status of the people included in the pilot. The “durable solution” may consist in: (i) a residence permit if the person is eligible; (ii) return to the country of origin if the person has no way of regularising his/her status, or, where appropriate, (iii) migration to another country. Given the novelty of this policy and its uniqueness in the European landscape, I decided to conduct a series of semi-structured interviews targeting representatives of the Pilot at both national and urban level in order to understand its genesis and implementation. Alongside these, I interviewed managers of reception centres for irregular migrants, as well as with NGO workers involved in the asylum and/or support system for migrants in the Netherlands (IOM, Amsterdam City Right, ASKV, Goedwerk Foundation).